The challenge for female leaders is how they are expected to behave is inconsistent with how leaders ought to behave. We expect leaders to be ambitious, confident and driven, not caring, warm and sensitive. Therefore, men are automatically at a leadership advantage because their behaviour is consistent with perceptions. In contrast, women face a quandary, when they behave consistently with gender-role expectations, they are perceived to be likeable but weak (not leadership material). However, if they exhibit the assertive behaviours leaders are expected to possess, they are in violation of their gender-role stereotype and are perceived to be unlikable, self-interested and interpersonally hostile (not leadership material).
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